Geçmişteki belli bir zamandan önce olmuş olayları anlatmak için İngilizcede Past Perfect Tense kullanılır. Bu zaman yapısını Türkçeye –mıştı/-mişti olarak çevirebiliriz. Past perfect yapısı da Present Perfect gibi kullanılır fakat şimdiki zamanı değil geçmişi kasteder. Past Perfect bir olayın diğerinden daha önce yaşandığını anlatmak için sıklıkla kullanılır. Past Perfect yapısı nasıl kurulur bakalım:

had + past participle (Fiilin Üçüncü Hali)

Örnek:

had gone, had eaten, had been, had seen

Olumlu Cümle: I wasn’t hungry. I had just eaten.

Olumsuz Cümle: I was very hungry. I hadn’t eaten all day.

Soru Cümlesi: Where had Mary gone?

ÖRNEK:

-He had worked in Japan before he moved to New York.

Past Perfect’in Kullanımları

Bir olayın diğer olaydan daha önce olduğunu belirtmek için Past Perfect kullanılır.

ÖRNEKLER:

  • I had never seen such a beautiful scenery before I went to Brazil.
  • I had never been to an opera before taking this class.
  • Christina had never had Thai food before last week.
  • We were not able to get a table as we had not booked in advance.
  • Had Igor ever studied English before he moved to Los Angeles?
  • I had eaten dinner so I wasn’t hungry.
  • The film had started before we arrived

Geçmişte başlayıp bir süre devam edip yine geçmişte sonlanan olayları anlatmak için Past Perfect kullanılır.

ÖRNEKLER:

  • We had had this washing machine for twenty years before it broke down.
  • We felt horrible about selling our car because we had owned it for years.
  • When Sam died he and Anna had been married for nearly forty years.
  • My grandma didn’t want to move because she had lived in Manchester all her life.

Koşul, hipotez, dilekleri dile getirmek için kullanılır.

  • I would have come home if he had asked.
  • I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last week.
  • It was extremely dangerous! What if you had got lost in the forest?

Past Perfect’in JUST ile Birlikte Kullanımı

Just, Past Perfect ile sıklıkla beraber kullanılır. Bu kullanım ‘akabinde’ gibi bir anlam ifade eder.

ÖRNEK:

  • The bus had just left when I arrived at the bus stop.
  • The attacker had just left the building when the police arrived.
  • I had baked a cake when he came home with macarons.
  • Gerçek olmayan/hayal edilen durumları anlatmak için Past Perfect kullanılabilir. Wish’ ve ‘if’li cümlelerde bu durumu sık sık görebiliriz.

ÖRNEK:

  • If I had known you were ill, I would have visited you.
  • My brother would have passed the driving test if he had been more careful.
  • I wish I hadn’t eaten that last burger.
  • If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

Past Perfect’in Reported Speech ile Kullanımı

Asked, said, told, thought, wondered gibi fiilerle başka bir kişinin düşüncelerini ya da ifadelerini aktarılan kullanımlara reported speech denir. Past Perfect bu yapıda sık sık kullanılır.

Örnek:

  • He told us that the tube had left.
  • Sally wondered if she had been there before.
  • He said that he had closed the dor because of the noise.

Past Perfect ile Sıklıkla Kullanılan Zarflar

  • Already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day

 

 

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